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T-44 Prototype #2 Rate of Fire Trials

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"Results of firing

Firing from standstill at an angle of 0 degrees. 

Target

Range

# shots

# direct hits

# of hits within 30 meters

Time spent

Rate of fire

Notes

Panther. Aiming was done using manual traverse.

900

10

8

2

1 min 5 sec

9.2 RPM

All rounds in turret rack

Panther and PzIII in a 30 deg arc. Aiming was done using manual traverse.

800

5

5

-

1 min 25 sec

7 RPM

5 rounds in the turret rack, 5 rounds to the right of the driver

1000

5

5

-

Panther tank, PzIII tank, 3x3 meter target in a 40 deg arc. Aiming was done using manual traverse.

800

3

3

-

1 min 40 sec

5.4 RPM

All rounds stored to the right of the driver

1000

3

3

-

1500

4

4

1

Panther tank, PzIII tank, 3x3 meter target in a 40 deg arc. Aiming was done with electric traverse.

800

5

5

-

2 min 40 sec

3.7 RPM

1500

5

1

2



The maximum aimed rate of fire of the 85 mm ZIS-S-53 gun from standstill firing at one target is 9.2 RPM. The maximum aimed rate of fire at two or three targets is 5-7 RPM. The precision attained during the measurement of rate of fire was good.

The relatively low aimed rate of fire obtained when using the electric traverse is explained by the fact that it is inconvenient to move from the hand to the electric traverse, and that the latter turns the turret at a very high speed.

Determining the maximum rate of fire

The maximum rate of fire was determined in the following conditions:

  • The ammunition is placed in ammunition racks.
  • Time spent on firing was measured from the "Load" command to the last shot fired.
  • The firing was done in groups of 10 without adjusting aim.
  • The T-44 tank was placed at 0, +90, -90, and 180 degrees to the target.
Angle of the tank

Number of shots

Location of ammunition

Time spent

Rate of fire

0

5

Turret bustle

28 sec

10.7 RPM

0

5

Right of driver

31 sec

9.7 RPM

+90

5

Right of driver

60 sec

5 RPM

-90

5

Right of driver

54 sec

5.3 RPM

180

5

Right of driver

72 sec

4.1 RPM

The maximum unaimed rate of fire at an angle of 0 degrees to the target is 10 RPM.
The maximum unaimed rate of fire at angles of +90, -90, and 180 degrees to the target is 4-5 RPM.

Effectiveness of firing on the move

The precision and rate of fire of the 85 mm ZIS-S-53 gun on the T-44 tank in motion was tested in the following way:
  • The ammunition is placed in ammunition racks.
  • Time spent on firing was measured from the "Load" command to the last shot fired.
  • Adjusting for distance was done by moving the sight point in relation to the target.
  • Firing was done at one or two targets in groups of 5.
  • Aiming was performed using manual traverse.
Targets:
  • PzIII tanks at a range of 1000 meters
The angle of the tank to the target was 0 degrees. The speed during firing was 9-12 kph. Aim was adjusted after every shot.

Target

Range to target

Number of shots

Number of direct hits

Number of hits within 30 meters

Number of hits within 100 meters

Time spent

Rate of fire

PzIII tank

600-800 meters

10

2

1

2

2 min 13 sec

4.5 RPM

PzIII tank #1

PzIII tank #2

600-800

800-1000

5

5

1

-

-

1

1

1

2 min 20 sec

4.3 RPM


The aimed rate of fire of the 85 mm ZIS-S-53 gun obtained when firing on the move with the manual traverse when firing at one or two targets, 4.4 RPM, is low, due to effort spent on aiming, inconvenience of using the electric firing mechanism when also using the elevation mechanism.

The precision of the gun, 25% direct hits and hits within 30 meters, is low, due to frequent and severe oscillations of the tank (the suspension was broken, the rear torsion bar was broken and 5 wheels were missing rubber rims). 

Aimed firing using the electric traverse is difficult due to the speed of the turret traverse."


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